Enhancing the relevance of organizational behavior by embracing performance management research

Aguinis, Herman and Pierce, Charles A
Journal of Organizational Behavior Vol. 29, Issue 1, p. 139-145

There is a science-practice gap in organizational behavior (OB) whereby entire bodies of scholarly knowledge are ignored by practitioners. We identify research needed to improve performance management practices that is likely to enhance the relevance of OB in the eyes of practitioners and thus help reduce the science-practice gap.

Contagion around October 1987 International Stock Market Crash

Yang, Jian, and David A. Bessler
European Journal of Operation Research, Vol 184, Issue 1, Pages 291-310

This study investigates financial contagion among seven international stock markets around the October 19, 1987 crash. Building on a recent advance in vector autoregression analysis by [Swanson, N., Granger, C.W.J., 1997. Impulse response functions based on a causal approach to residual orthogonalization in vector autoregression. Journal of the American Statistical Association 92, 357–367], data-determined historical decompositions are conducted to provide a day-by-day picture of price fluctuation transmission, which is crucial to explore the financial contagion pattern characterized by rich dynamics. The results clearly show that the crash originated in the US market and that an upward movement in the Japanese market after the crash helped the recovery in the US market, which has not yet been empirically documented in the literature.

Comparison of three meta-analytic procedures for estimating moderating effects of categorical variables

Aguinis, Herman, Sturman, M.C., & Pierce, C.A.
Organizational Research Methods Vol 11, Issue 1, 2008

We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to compare the Hedges-Olkin (1985), Hunter-Schmidt (1990, 2004), and a refinement of the Aguinis-Pierce (1998) meta-analytic approaches for estimating moderating effects of categorical variables. The simulation examined binary moderator variables (e.g., gender–male, female; ethnicity–majority, minority). We compared the three meta-analytic methods in terms of their point estimation accuracy as well as Type I and Type II error rates. Results provide guidelines to help researchers choose among the three meta-analytic techniques based on theory (i.e., exploratory vs. confirmatory research) and research design considerations (i.e., degree of range restriction and measurement error).

A model of buyer regret: Selected prepurchase and postpurchase antecedents with consequences for the brand and the channel

Keaveney, Susan M., Huber, Frank and Herrmann, Andreas
Journal of Business Research Vol. 60, Issue 10, p. 1207-1215

This research examines how two prepurchase stages of the buyer decision process-information search and alternative evaluation–and two postpurchase stages-evaluation of product and service attributes-influence buyer regret. The study extends prior consequences of regret to include purchase intentions toward both brand and the channel. Tested in a field sample of luxury automobile purchasers, results show that higher information search and alternative evaluation lead to more buyer regret; lower evaluations of service (but not product) attributes lead to more regret; and regrets’ consequences include reduced intentions to repurchase either the brand or from the dealership. Buyers who switch brands experience more regret than buyers who did not switch brands.

Public Perceptions of Auditor Independence: Evidence from CPA’s, Loan Officers, and the General Public

Nieschwietz, R. and Woolley, D.
Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal Volume 13, Number 3

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) included many components designed to increase auditor independence. Despite these intentions, research finds that many of the included provisions may not have influenced independence as intended. As recent studies focused primarily on independence in fact, not independence in appearance, we surmise that SOX influences the perception of independence. We also suspect that perceptions of users will vary with respect to various aspects of audit quality.

The neural network model of organizational identification

Lane, Vicki R. and Scott, Susanne G.
Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, Vol. 104, Issue 2, p. 175-192

This paper proposes the Neural Network Model of Organizational Identification; the model depicts organizational identification as an associative link within an organization member’s social knowledge structure of self as it relates to a focal organization. Within this knowledge structure, organization identification connects self to organization via an attribute sub-network that includes self-concept and organization identity and via a valance sub-network that includes organization based self-esteem and attitudinal commitment. This model draws on the principles of balance-congruity, imbalance dissonance, and differentiation [Greenwald, A. G., Banaji, M. R., Rudman, L. A., Farnham, S. D., Nosek, B. A., & Mellott, D. S. (2002). A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept. Psychological Review, 109, 3–25.] to predict relationships between these organizational constructs. The Neural Network Model of Organizational Identification is parsimonious yet it effectively integrates and synthesizes the burgeoning literature on organizational identification. By operating at a neural network level of analysis, the model departs substantially from existing organization models by (1) specifying unique construct definitions; (2) offering an alternative perspective of the affective/cognitive dimensions and interrelationships; (3) introducing the concept of implicit cognition to the literature on organizational identification, which makes apparent problems with current measures; and (4) explaining phenomena not explained in existing models. This perspective adds precision and reveals that organizational identification is interconnected within a reciprocal network of mutual causality.

Tax Treatment of Compensation Received as a Nonprofessional Representative

Conner, Elizabeth C. and Schaefer, Michael V.
Tax Adviser
Vol. 38, Issue 11, p. 653-654

The article focuses on tax treatment of compensation received as a nonprofessional representative. According the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, self-employment tax only applies for a nonprofessional executor or administrator if a trade or business is included in the assets of the estate, the executor actively participates in the business and the fees are related to operation of the business.

Evidence-Based Management And The Marketplace For Ideas

Cascio, Wayne F.
Academy of Management Journal Vol. 50, Issue 5, p. 1009-1012

In this article the author examines methods which management professionals can use to excel in their given fields. He contrasts the academic study of human resource management with the practical application of the process. Examined are the roles played by different types of professionals in the field such as management consultants, human resource managers in a corporate setting and journalists who report on personnel matters. He notes that academics use management science to create new knowledge, while practitioners are not always receptive to academic theory, preferring more practical applications. In addition the author examines human resource matters and the influence on them of evidence-based management.

The Role of Information Systems Resources in ERP Capability Building and Business Process Outcomes

Karimi, Jahangir, Somers, Toni M., and Bhattacherjee, Anol
Journal of Management Information Systems Vol. 24, Issue 2, p. 221-260

Many enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation projects fail despite huge investments. To explain such failures, we draw on the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm to define various dimensions of information systems (IS) resources. Using resource-picking and capability-building arguments, we examine the relationships between IS resources and ERP capabilities to find out whether they have complementary effects on outcomes. Empirical results from a survey of manufacturing firms that recently implemented ERP systems support the hypothesized model. For IS research, this study further develops the complementary and capability-building roles of IS resources, integrates RBV into our current knowledge of ERP implementation, and provides theoretical explanations for when or under what conditions building ERP capabilities has the highest impact on business process outcomes. For IS practice, it emphasizes the importance of IS resources in building ERP capabilities, provides preliminary measures for IS resource dimensions, and demonstrates their impact on firms’ ERP capabilities and consequent business process outcomes.

Solving the maximum edge weight clique problem via unconstrained quadratic programming

Alidaee, Bahram, Glover, Fred, Kochenberger, Gary and Wang, Haibo
European Journal of Operational Research Vol. 181, Issue 2, p. 592-597

The unconstrained quadratic binary program (UQP) is proving to be a successful modeling and solution framework for a variety of combinatorial optimization problems. Experience reported in the literature with several problem classes has demonstrated that this approach works surprisingly well in terms of solution quality and computational times, often rivaling and sometimes surpassing more traditional methods. In this paper we report on the application of UQP to the maximum edge-weighted clique problem. Computational experience is reported illustrating the attractiveness of the approach.

Primary Care Provider Turnover and Quality of Care in Managed Care Organizations

Mary E. Plomondon, David J. Magid, John F. Steiner, Samantha Whinney, Blair D. Gifford, Sarah C. Shih, Gary K. Grunwald and John S. Rumsfeld
American Journal of Managed Care Vol. 13, Issue 8, p. 465-472

Objectives: To examine the association between primary care provider turnover in managed care organizations and measures of member satisfaction and preventive care.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study of a national sample of 615 managed care organizations that reported HEDIS® data to the National Committee for Quality Assurance from 1999 through 2001.

Methods: Multivariable hierarchical regression modeling was used to evaluate the association between health plan primary care provider turnover rate and member satisfaction and preventive care measures, including childhood immunization, well-child visits, cholesterol, diabetes management, and breast and cervical cancer screening, adjusting for patient and organizational characteristics, time, and repeated measures.

Results: The median primary care provider turnover rate was 7.1% (range, 0%-53.3%). After adjustment for plan characteristics, health plans with higher primary care provider turnover rates had significantly lower measures of member satisfaction, including overall rating of healthcare (P < .01). A 10% higher primary care provider turnover rate was associated with 0.9% fewer members rating high overall satisfaction with healthcare. Health plans with higher provider turnover rates also had lower rates of preventive care, including childhood immunization (P = .045), well-child visits (P = .002), cholesterol screening after cardiac event (P = .042), and cervical cancer screening (P = .024). For example, a 10% higher primary care provider turnover was associated with a 2.7% lower rate of child-members receiving well-child visits in the first 15 months of life.

Conclusions: Primary care provider turnover is associated with several measures of care quality, including aspects of member satisfaction and preventive care. Future studies should evaluate whether interventions to reduce primary care provider turnover can improve quality of care and patient outcomes.

I Bonds versus TIPS: Should Individual Investors Prefer One to the Other?

Arak, Marcelle and Rosenstein, Stuart

CFA Digest Vol. 37, Issue 3, p. 77-78

The article compares the features of the Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (TIPS) and Series I Savings Bonds, two alternatives for investors hoping to avoid the negative effects of inflation on their portfolios without incurring credit risk, to determine the better after-tax alternative for the individual investor. Results reveal that TIPS enjoyed an 80 bps real return advantage over I Bonds.

Teaching The Concept Of The Sampling Distribution Of The Mean

Aguinis, Herman and Branstetter, Steven A.
Journal of Management Education Vol. 31, Issue 4, p. 467-483

The authors use proven cognitive and learning principles and recent developments in the field of educational psychology to teach the concept of the sampling distribution of the mean, which is arguably one of the most central concepts in inferential statistics. The proposed pedagogical approach relies on cognitive load, contiguity, and experiential learning theories and on the integration of new knowledge within previously formed knowledge structures. Thus, the proposed approach stimulates both visual and auditory learning, engages students in the process of learning through problem solving, and presents information so that it builds on existing knowledge. Results of an experiment including introductory statistics undergraduate students indicate that students exposed to the proposed theory- based pedagogical approach enhanced their learning by approximately 60%.

The Impact of ERP Implementation on Business Process Outcomes: A Factor-Based Study

Karimi, Jahangir, Somers, Toni M., and Bhattacherjee, Anol
Journal of Management Information Systems Vol. 24, Issue 1, p. 101-134

Failures in large-scale information technology implementation are abundantly documented in the practitioner literature. In this study, we examine why some firms benefit more from enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation than others. We look at ERP implementation from a technological diffusion perspective, and investigate under what contextual conditions the extent of ERP implementation has the greatest effect on business process outcomes. Using empirical data, we find that the extent of ERP implementation influences business process outcomes, and both ERP radicalness and delivery system play moderating roles. For information systems (IS) practice, this study helps managers direct their attention to the most promising factors, provides insights into how to manage their complex interactions, and elaborates on their differential effects on business process outcomes. For IS research, it integrates innovation diffusion theory into our current knowledge of ERP implementation and provides theoretical explanations for ERP implementation failures.

Nurse Scheduling: From Academia to Implementation or Not?

Kellogg, Deborah L. and Walczak, Steven
Interfaces Vol. 37, Issue 4, p. 355-369

The scheduling of nursing staff is a long-standing problem with myriads of research models published by academia. The exploratory research that we discuss examines the models that academia has produced and the models that hospitals have actually used. We use data from many sources, including research articles, e-mail and telephone surveys, an industry database, and a software source catalog. Only 30 percent of systems that research articles discuss are implemented, and there is very little academic involvement in systems that third-party vendors offer. We examine causes for the research-application gap and discuss directions for future academic research to make it more applicable.

eLearning Agents

Gregg, Dawn G.
The Learning Organization Vol. 14 Issue 4, pp. 300-312

Purpose – This paper illustrates the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments.

Design/methodology/approach – This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized learning. It utilizes a set of interacting agents that can personalize instruction based on an individual’s prior knowledge as well as their cognitive and learning needs. The e-learning agents monitor the e-learning environment and improve learning and collaboration based on learners’ prior knowledge, social characteristics and learning style.

Findings – e-Learning agents should allow discovery of new learning objects more easily, allow learners to customize materials presented to improve learning outcomes, and improve collaboration in the e-learning environment.

Originality/value – Little prior research has been done on the use of agents in e-learning environments. This paper proposes a set of e-learning agents that, if implemented in online education or training environments, should provide tangible benefits to organizations.

Litigation Support and Risk Management for Pretrial Discovery of Electronically Stored Information

Ruhnka, John and Bagby, John W

CPA Journal Vol. 77 Issue 5, pp. 50-56

The article offers suggestions regarding the management of electronic data discovery (EDD) in litigation in the U.S. Familiarity with EDD is necessary to conduct internal investigations, as well as to identify and disclose electronically stored information (ESI) to litigation opponents, regulators, or prosecutors. Many potential parties to a lawsuit are not knowledgeable about electronic records management (ERM) practices or their legal obligations when served with a discovery request.

An empirical analysis of open source software developers’ motivations and continuance intentions.

Wu, Chorng-Guang, Gerlach, James H., and Young, Clifford E.
Information & Management Vol. 44, Issue 3, p. 253-262

We investigated open source software (OSS) developers’ intentions to continue their involvement in future projects. The research goal was to analyze the motivations of OSS developers systematically and identify those factors that influenced their continuation. A work motivation model for OSS developers was proposed and a research model was empirically validated using data from a field survey of 148 OSS participants. The results showed that OSS developers’ feelings of satisfaction and their intentions to continue with OSS development was influenced by both helping behavior and economic incentives and also that adequate motivators existed, though OSS developers did not benefit equally and there was substantial room to improve their experiences as OSS developers.

University of Colorado Denver Business School