A computational study on the quadratic knapsack problem with multiple constraints

Haibo Wang, Gary Kochenberger and Fred Glover
Computers & Operations Research, Vol. 39, Issue 1, Pages 3–11

The quadratic knapsack problem (QKP) has been the subject of considerable research in recent years. Despite notable advances in special purpose solution methodologies for QKP, this problem class remains very difficult to solve. With the exception of special cases, the state-of-the-art is limited to addressing problems of a few hundred variables and a single knapsack constraint.

In this paper we provide a comparison of quadratic and linear representations of QKP based on test problems with multiple knapsack constraints and up to eight hundred variables. For the linear representations, three standard linearizations are investigated. Both the quadratic and linear models are solved by standard branch-and-cut optimizers available via CPLEX. Our results show that the linear models perform well on small problem instances but for larger problems the quadratic model outperforms the linear models tested both in terms of solution quality and solution time by a wide margin. Moreover, our results demonstrate that QKP instances larger than those previously addressed in the literature as well as instances with multiple constraints can be successfully and efficiently solved by branch and cut methodologies.