Logical and inequality implications for reducing the size and difficulty of quadratic unconstrained binary optimization problems

Fred Glover, Mark Lewis, Gary Kochenberger
European Journal of Operational Research,Vol. 265, Issue 3, Pages: 829-842.
The quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problem arises in diverse optimization applications ranging from Ising spin problems to classical problems in graph theory and binary discrete optimization. The use of preprocessing to transform the graph representing the QUBO problem into a smaller equivalent graph is important for improving solution quality and time for both exact and metaheuristic algorithms and is a step towards mapping large scale QUBO to hardware graphs used in quantum annealing computers. In an earlier paper a set of rules was introduced that achieved significant QUBO reductions as verified through computational testing. Here this work is extended with additional rules that provide further reductions that succeed in exactly solving 10% of the benchmark QUBO problems. An algorithm and associated data structures to efficiently implement the entire set of rules is detailed and