Sy, Thomas; Choi, Jin Nam; Johnson, Stefanie K
Leadership Quarterly. Aug 2013, Vol. 24 Issue 4, p. 463-476
Departing from the static perspective of leader charisma that prevails in the literature, we propose a dynamic perspective of charismatic leadership in which group perceptions of leader charisma influence and are influenced by group mood. Based on a longitudinal experimental study conducted for 3weeks involving 116 intact, self-managing student groups, we found that T1 group perceptions of leader charisma mediate the effect of leader trait expressivity on T2 positive and negative group moods. T2 positive and negative group moods influence T3 distal charisma perceptions by affecting T2 proximal perceptions of leader effectiveness. The current findings offer critical insights into (a) the reciprocal relationship between group perceptions of leader charisma and group mood, (b) the dynamic and transient nature of group perceptions of leader charisma, (c) the importance of understanding negative mood in charismatic leadership, and (d) the mechanism through which charismatic leadership perceptions can be formed and sustained over time.
Paul Whiteley, Thomas Sy, Stefanie K. Johnson
The Leadership Quarterly, Vol 23, Issue 5, Oct 2012, Pages 822–834
We investigated the relationships between leaders’ implicit followership theories (LIFTs) (conceptions of followers) and naturally occurring Pygmalion effects (leaders’ high performance expectations that improve follower performance). Results based on 151 workplace leader–follower dyads supported a model of naturally occurring Pygmalion effects. Positive LIFTs led to higher performance expectations, liking, and relationship quality from leaders, which impacted follower performance. Supervisory experience moderated the relationship between positive LIFTs and leaders’ performance expectations for their followers, such that the performance expectations of leaders with less supervisory experience were more strongly influenced by their conceptions of followers. Implications of the findings for improving follower performance are discussed. Suggestions for future research are offered: antecedents of LIFTs, negative LIFTs, Golem effects, and role reversed Pygmalion effects, among others.
Sitzmann, Traci; Johnson, Stefanie K.
Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 97 Issue 5, Sep 2012, 967-981
Planning plays an instrumental role in prominent self-regulation theories (e.g., action regulation, control, goal setting), yet as a scientific community we know little about how people carry out their learning plans. Using an experimental field study, we implemented a repeated-measures intervention requiring trainees to create a plan for when, where, and how much time they intended to devote to training before each of 4 online modules and examined the conditions under which the planning intervention improved learning and reduced attrition. Trainees benefited from the planning intervention when it was paired with another intervention—prompting self-regulation—targeting self-regulatory processes that occur subsequent to planning (e.g., monitoring, concentration, learning strategies). Trainees’ learning performance was highest and attrition lowest when they received both interventions. The planning intervention was also advantageous for enhancing learning and reducing attrition when trainees followed through on the amount of time that they planned to devote to training. Finally, the relationship between planned study time, time on task, and learning performance was cyclical. Planned study time had a positive effect on time on task, which, in turn, had a positive effect on learning performance. However, trainees planned to devote less time to training following higher rather than lower learning performance. The current study contributes to our theoretical understanding of self-regulated learning by researching one of the most overlooked components of the process—planning—and examining the conditions under which establishing a learning plan enhances training outcomes.
Stefanie Johnson, Lauren Garrison, Gina Hernez-Broome, John Fleenor and Judith Steed
Learning & Education, In Press
This paper examines the relationship between goal setting and transfer of training as measured on a 360-degree survey collected 3 months after a five-day leadership development program. Leaders set personal goals for behavior change during the program. For two of the three competencies measured (developing others, building and maintaining relationships), leaders who set a goal for change on a competency were perceived as having improved more on that competency than those who did not. Moreover, those who set more than one goal were perceived as having improved more across competencies than those who set only one goal.
Traci Sitzmann and Stefanie K. Johnson
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 117, Issue 1, Pages 192–207
Two studies were conducted to examine the implications of inaccurate self-appraisals in online training. Self-assessment of knowledge moderated the effects of trainees’ performance on subsequent performance and attrition. Performance was highest after uniformly positive ratings (i.e., high self-assessment and high performance), followed by underestimation, overestimation, and uniformly negative ratings, respectively. Attrition was lowest after uniformly positive ratings, followed by underestimation, uniformly negative ratings, and overestimation, respectively. Effort had a more positive effect on performance following low than high self-assessments and this interaction fully mediated the self-assessment/performance interaction on subsequent performance. Commitment had a more negative effect on subsequent attrition following low than high self-assessments and this interaction fully mediated the self-assessment/performance interaction on subsequent attrition. Finally, trainee conscientiousness affected their behavior when their performance and self-assessments were inconsistent—overestimating and underestimating performance increased attrition more for trainees low in conscientiousness and impaired performance more for trainees high in conscientiousness.
Susan Elaine Murphy and Stefanie K. Johnson
The Leadership Quarterly Vol. 22, Issue 3, Pages 459–470
Although research has identified techniques for leader development, most of the extant research has focused on development in adulthood, ignoring development at an early age. A recent resurgence in interest in the genetic or other early development factors, such as attachment, points to the benefits of understanding the developmental trajectories (Day,
Harrison, & Halpin, 2009) of individuals throughout adulthood. This paper argues for an examination of the earliest “seeds” of leader development. In this paper we present a framework that explores the tasks of leadership at various ages before adulthood, the skills
required to accomplish these tasks, and the mechanism by which younger leaders develop these skills. In understanding what skills and what features of leadership identity have long roots, we can begin to understand more fully the developmental needs of adults. Without a more comprehensive look at leadership over the lifespan, leader development practices will not meet their full potential.
Rebecca J. Reichard and Stefanie K. Johnson
The Leadership Quarterly Vol. 22, Issue 1, Pages 33–42
Leader self-development enables leaders to adapt to the continually changing environment both within and outside of the organization. The purpose of this paper is to describe the construct of leader self-development and the processes by which it can serve as an organizational leadership development strategy. We framed the paper around a multi-level model of leader self-development linking organizational level constructs such as human resources practices and resources with group level phenomena of norms, supervisor style, and social networks with the individual leader self-development process. Leader self-development is a cost-effective way for organizations to develop leaders resulting in competitive edge.
Johnson, Stefanie, Podratz, Kenneth, Dipboye, Robert, and Gibbons, Ellie
Journal of Social Psychology, May/Jun2010, Vol. 150 Issue 3, p301-318
The “what is beautiful is good” heuristic suggests that physically attractive persons benefit from their attractiveness in a large range of situations, including perceptions of employment suitability. Conversely, the “beauty is beastly” effect suggests that attractiveness can be detrimental to women in certain employment contexts, although these findings have been less consistent than those for the “what is beautiful is good” effect. The current research seeks to uncover situations in which beauty might be detrimental for female applicants. In two studies, we found that attractiveness can be detrimental for women applying for masculine sex-typed jobs for which physical appearance is perceived as unimportant.
Johnson, Stefanie K., Bettenhausen, Kenneth and Gibbons, Ellie
Small Group Research, Vol. 40 Issue 6, pp. 623-649
Many organizations are using computer-mediated communication to facilitate group work among virtual teams. However, little is known about the effects of using computer-mediated communication on team member outcomes. Examining use of computer-mediated communication as a continuum, the authors found that team members who used computer-mediated communication more often experienced lower levels of positive affect while working with their teams and had lower levels of affective commitment to their teams. Positive affect mediated the relationship between use of computer-mediated communication and affective commitment. Moreover, this study identified a tipping point (using computer-mediated communication more than 90% of the time) at which the use of computer-mediated communication was particularly detrimental to team outcomes.
Johnson, Stefanie, Holladay, Courtney and Quinones, Miguel
Journal of Business & Psychology; Vol. 24 Issue 4, pp. 409-418.
The purpose of this study was to examine employees’ reactions to the use of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in performance evaluations. In addition, gender differences in such reactions were examined. Data were obtained from a sample of working adults ( n = 78) and a sample of students ( n = 249). In the first study, participants compared the fairness of 11 different weighting combinations of OCB and core task behavior, using a within-subjects design. In the second study, low, medium, and high weightings of OCB were compared using a between-subjects design. In both studies, participants reported that evaluating employees on OCB was fair. OCB weightings of 30– 50% were perceived as the most fair. Men felt that OCB weighting of 20–30% were the most fair and women felt that OCB weightings of 25–50% were the most fair. Considering that employees are evaluated on their OCB, it is important to know that they feel that it is fair to do so. Choosing how heavily to weigh OCB may be more difficult, although weightings of 25–30% OCB were perceived to be fair to both the men and women in this research. This is the first study to examine employee reactions to the use of OCB in performance evaluations and add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that there are gender differences in the perceptions of OCB.
Johnson, Stefanie K.
Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 20 Issue 5, pp. 814-827
This research examines the role of mood and mood contagion in a leadership situation. In phase 1 of the study participants received a positive or negative mood induction and completed a leadership speech describing how to complete a hiring task. In phase 2, participants watched one of the speeches from phase 1, completed ratings, and performed the hiring task. Followers in the positive mood condition had higher levels of positive mood and lower levels of negative mood, rated their leaders as more charismatic, and performed better than followers in the negative mood condition. Followers” mood mediated the relationship between leader mood and follower outcomes. In the third phase of the study, participants read transcripts of the speeches from phase 2 but experienced no change in mood or performance, suggesting the previous effects found in phase 2 were due to mood contagion rather than the content of the speeches.