Journal of Management Inquiry,Pages: 1056492619870871.
In the past hundred years, business schools in the United States have had to be resilient and undergo change in order to address various challenges. They have faced issues pertaining to their legitimacy, rigor, and relevance. This article suggests that business schools are once again in a period of change that requires resilience and that these age old issues have to be reconsidered in this new environment, and it describes some of the economic, reputational, technological, and psychosocial threats and opportunities that are currently creating an impetus for change. The other articles that comprise this dialog series on Resilience and Change in Business Education and Management Research are also introduced.
Journal of Management Inquiry,Pages: 1056492619870865.
Business school faculty can play a critical role in fostering resilience and change in their institutions. This article describes what it means to be a transformative professor and a catalyst for positive change. It suggests that this involves playing both leader and follower roles, such as builders, problem-solvers, and constructive disruptors; having a transformative mind-set; and utilizing multiple forms of intelligence.
Modern organizational crises are complex, diverse, and frequent. Ineffective crisis management can result in catastrophic loss. Crisis Management: Resilience and Change introduces students to best practices for preventing, containing, and learning from crises in our global, media-driven society. While covering the strengths of existing works on crisis management, such as systems, leadership, communication, and stakeholder perspective, this innovative new text goes beyond to include global, ethical, change, and emotional aspects of crisis communication. Using her proven transformative crisis management framework, Sarah Kovoor-Misra illustrates how organizations of all sizes can be adaptable, proactive, resilient, and ethical in the face of calamity.
Sarah Kovoor-Misra, Shanthi Gopalakrishnan
Leadership & Organization Development Journal,Vol. 37 Issue 8, Pages: 1100-1116
The purpose of this paper is to investigate followers judgments of the culpability of their leaders and the organizations external stakeholders in causing a crisis. The authors study the differences in effects of these judgments on their trust toward their leaders, their emotional exhaustion, and their levels of organizational identification.
Sarah Kovoor-Misra, Paul Olk
Leadership & Organization Development Journal,Vol. 33 Issue 8, Pages: 990-1011
The purpose of this paper is to investigate followers judgments of leader culpability and learning during a crisis, and the extent to which judgments of culpability create hopelessness and reduce crisis learning. The authors also study factors that moderate these relationships.
Journal of Management Inquiry,Vol. 21 Issue 3, Pages: 279-286
Business school professors are facing increasing pressure to excel in diverse academic roles that require different knowledge and skills. The multiplicity and diversity of roles evoke the image of the professor as an academic decathlete. In this article, the author explores the metaphor of the academic decathlete through conversations with Professor Tom Lee who has been successful in multiple academic roles. The interview sheds light on the dimensions and capacities of an academic decathlete and various strategies that can be used as academics seek to perform at high levels of excellence in a range of roles.
Sarah Kovoor-Misra, and Marlene A. Smith
Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 32 Iss: 6, pp.584 – 604
Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the extent to which individuals’ identification with a changed organizational artifact is associated with their cognitive, behavioral, and affective support for change in the later stages of a change effort, and the role of contextual variables in mediating these relationships.
Design/methodology/approach – Primarily quantitative with some qualitative data from an online organization that had acquired the non-personnel assets of its competitor.
Findings – The paper finds that: artifacts can be an important part of employees’ perceptions of their organizations; artifact identification is associated with cognitive and behavioral support in the later stages of a change effort; a positive perception of the change mediates between identification and cognitive and behavioral support, and also facilitates affective support; emotional exhaustion is a marginal mediator; and trust towards top managers does not play a mediating role.
Research limitations/implications – Future research could study the factors that influence artifact identification. Studies of support for change must address its various dimensions to more accurately assess support.
Practical implications – During the later stages of change, managers can foster artifact identification, highlight the positives, and reduce emotional exhaustion to ensure support.
Originality/value – This study is one of the first to examine the relationship between artifact identification and support for change in the later stages of a change effort, and the mediating role of contextual factors. In addition, it investigates the multi-dimensional aspects of support for change, an area that has received limited empirical research attention.
Journal of Organizational Change Management Vol. 22 Issue 5, p494-510
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for predicting the role and effects of perceived organizational identity (POI) on organizational members’ perceptions and behaviors during crisis and change situations, and the scope of the resulting POT changes that may occur. Design/methodology/approach – The paper brings together research on crisis, change, threat/opportunity, and POI, along with case study data to create a threat/opportunity framework for making these predictions. Findings – Based on whether threat or opportunity is perceived during crisis and change situations, different aspects of individuals’ POIs will become salient. In threat situations, individuals will focus on perceptions of “who we are.” In opportunity situations, individuals will also focus on “who we could be.” The focus of attention and the threat/opportunity context will influence organizational identification, learning, and openness to change; and whether incremental or transformational POI change occurs. The perception of “who we could be” will motivate more change than the ideal organizational identity or the image of “who we want to be” that is typically studied in the literature. The scope of POI change is also dependent on perceptions of identity cost and the identity gap. Research limitations/implications – Future research can test the hypotheses suggested here in various crisis and change contexts. Also, differentiating between threat and opportunity contexts is important for understanding the role of POI, and the extent to which POI changes can occur in crisis and change situations. Studies of resistance to POI change could consider whether individuals perceived the identity cost and the identity gap as being too low. More research on POI in opportunity contexts could expand understanding of the POI image of “who we could be” in motivating POI change. Finally, further integration of the literature on crisis and change can benefit both fields. Practical implications – Practitioners can predict which aspects of POI will become salient in threat and opportunity conditions, and manage their different effects. For individuals to learn and change their POIs during crisis and change situations, managers need to diminish heightened perceptions of threat and shift the focus of attention to “who we could be.” Top managers’ claims of “who we could be” need to be perceived by organizational members as being desirable and attainable in order to be motivating. Finally, to create transformational POI change, executives need to highlight the identity cost of not changing, and the size of the identity gap. Originality/value – The threatlopportunity framework enables new predictions of the role and effects of POI in crisis and change situations. The paper highlights the POI image of “who we could be,” defines incremental and transformational POI change, redefines the identity gap concept, and introduces the notion of identity cost to provide a framework for predicting the scope of POI change that has received limited research attention. Finally, the paper contributes to research on POI in opportunity-oriented conditions, and integrates research on crisis and change.
Sarah Kovoor-Misra and Marlene A. Smith
The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science Vol. 44, Issue 4, p. 422-444
This study examines how the POIs of members of an online retail organization were affected after an acquisition. The authors find that (a) POI is more complex than previously understood, and continuity, change and confusion in POI can coexist. (b) The organizational change reactivated previously unresolved POI issues. (c) The structure of POI includes cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions, and changes occurred in these dimensions. (d) Top managers and employees who have more interactions with outsiders in their jobs tend to be more confused and make less POI change than employees who primarily deal with internal operations. Finally, (e) the image of the acquired organization and the change strategies used are triggers of POI confusion and/or change in the acquiring organization. This article highlights the experience of individuals in the acquiring organization and suggests that POI is an important lens for understanding and managing organizational changes.