Diefendorff, James M., Croyle, Meredith H., & Gosserand, Robin H.
Journal of Vocational Behavior Vol. 66, p. 339-357
This investigation had two purposes. The first was to determine whether the display of naturally-felt emotions is distinct from surface acting and deep acting as a method of displaying organizationally-desired emotions. The second purpose was to examine dispositional and situational antecedents of surface acting, deep acting, and the expression of naturally-felt emotions. Results supported a three-dimensional structure separating deep acting, surface acting, and the expression of naturally-felt emotions. In addition, the dispositional and situational variables exhibited theoretically-consistent and distinct patterns of relationships with the three emotional labor strategies. Overall, the results of this study expand the nomological network of surface acting and deep acting and suggest that the expression of naturally-felt emotions is a distinct strategy for displaying emotions at work and should be included in research on emotional labor.