David G Collings, Kamel Mellahi, Wayne F Cascio
Journal of Management,Vol. 45, Issue 2, Pages: 540-566.
The link between global talent management (GTM) and multinational enterprises’ (MNEs) performance has not been theorized or empirically tested. We develop a theoretical framework for how GTM links to performance at the headquarters (HQ), subsidiary, and individual employee levels. Using the resource-based view as a frame, we highlight the routines of pivotal positions, global talent pools, and a differentiated HR architecture as central to GTM. We show that at the HQ level, an MNE’s adoption of a global, multidomestic, or transnational strategy determines the objectives of the GTM system and significantly influences the performance of the enterprise. At the subsidiary level, the alignment between HQ intentions and subsidiary implementation of GTM routines is a key variable in our analysis. We consider the effects of these higher-level factors on individual performance through the lens of human-capital
Brooke Z Graham, Wayne F Cascio
Management Research,Vol. 16, Issue 4, Pages: 363-379.
Purpose One purpose of this paper is to emphasize the relationship between employees as brand ambassadors and the concept of an employer brand. Another is to consider cross-cultural employer branding in the context of global talent management. The authors also clarify the connection between organizational image, organizational identity and organizational reputation, and address how positive and negative brand reputation can affect an organization. Design/methodology/approach The authors use a literature review of findings with respect to topics such as competitive strategy and constructs from the literature on employer branding to identify some key research questions to address. They then consider cross-cultural employer branding and brand repair in the context of talent management, along with more key questions to address in each area. Findings A positive employer brand – with its strong
Wayne F Cascio
Business Ethics: The Big Picture,Pages: 276.
An intuitive argument for companies paying low wages is the affordability of their products. Walmart is typically assumed to embody such an approach. It is through low wages that Walmart is able to keep prices so low, or so the argument goes. Walmartisthe largest retailer in the world, and yet part of that company, the Sam’s Club warehouse portion of the business, is not the market leader in its area (warehouse stores). The top warehouse retailer is Costco, and this is the case even though Costco has fewer stores than Sam’s Club. Additionally, Costco employees are in a better position in terms of wages and benefits than Walmart employees. This seems to be a violation of the seemingly intuitive idea that low prices require low wages. In this article, Wayne Cascio explains how Costco has managed to maintain its place as the market leader while maintaining employee wages and benefits. Assuming that the same model would workfor Walmart, the natural question is, are the practices of Walmart morally justifiable?It is also interesting to note that Walmart seems to have recently increased its externalized costs. Cascio references a recent study that claims that one 200-person Walmart store results in costs to federal taxpayers of over $470,000. A more recent Mother Jones article cites a new study by the same group that
Wayne F Cascio, Herman Aguinis
In Applied Psychology in Talent Management, world-renowned authors Wayne F. Cascio and Herman Aguinis provide the most comprehensive, future-oriented overview of psychological theories and how they impact people decisions in today’s ever-changing workplace. Taking a rigorous, evidence-based approach, the new Eighth Edition includes more than 1,000 new citations from over 20 top-tier journal articles. The authors uniquely emphasize the latest developments in the fieldall in the context of historical perspectives. Integrated coverage of technology, strategy, globalization, and social responsibility throughout the text provides students with a holistic view of the field and equips them with the practical tools necessary to create productive, enjoyable work environments.
Wayne F Cascio
Human Resource Management Review,
The scope of the training enterprise is vast, the field is dynamic, and multi-level issues confront training researchers. After identifying three “mega trends” – globalization, technology, and demographic changes – this paper reviews training trends at the macro level, the micro level, and emerging policy issues and links each one to the mega trends. The macro-level trends – increasing demands for personal and professional development by job seekers and employees, the effects of digital technology on work, structural changes in labor markets, increasing training opportunities for non-standard workers, and training as an important aspect of an employer’s brand – reflect broad trends in the economy. Micro-level trends – better understanding of requirements for effective learning; use of short, digital lessons; and options for optimizing learning and preventing skill and knowledge decay – each focus on improving the
Ramiro Montealegre, Wayne F Cascio
Communications of the ACM,Vol. 60, Issue 12, Pages: 60-67.
Y ZENZEN of enormous quantities of structured and unstructured data, requiring the adjective “big” to distinguish this new paradigm of development. Ubiquitous computing also blurs the boundaries between industries, nations, companies, providers, partners, competitors, employees, freelancers, outsourcers, volunteers, and customers. They also yield opportunities to unify the physical space, which has always used information to try to make an inherently inefficient system more efficient, and the electronic space, which enables information accessibility to overcome the limitations of the physical space. Merging the physical and the electronic also has implications for privacy and security, as well as how companies are organized and manage human talent.Given these rapid advances and our increased reliance on technology, the question of how to manage technologyenabled change in work and employment is highly salient for companies and their executives. General predictions anticipate significant changes in knowledge acquisition, sharing, and distribution, as well as related ripple
David G Collings, Kamel Mellahi, Wayne F Cascio
Oxford University Press,
The Oxford Handbook of Talent Management offers academic researchers, advanced postgraduate students, and reflective practitioners a state-of-the-art overview of the key themes, topics, and debates in talent management. The Handbook is designed with a multi-disciplinary perspective in mind and draws upon perspectives from, inter alia, human resource management, psychology, and strategy to chart the topography of the area of talent management and to establish the base of knowledge in the field. Furthermore, each chapter concludes by identifying key gaps in our understanding of the area of focus. The Handbook is ambitious in its scope, with 28 chapters structured around five sections. These include the context of talent management, talent and performance, talent teams and networks, managing talent flows, and contemporary issues in talent management. Each chapter is written by a leading international scholar in the area and thus the volume represents the authoritative reference for anyone working in the area of talent management.
Herman Aguinis, Wayne F Cascio, Ravi S Ramani
Palgrave Macmillan UK,Vol. 48, Issue 6, Pages: 653-663.
International business is not immune to science’s reproducibility and replicability crisis. We argue that this crisis is not entirely surprising given the methodological practices that enhance systematic capitalization on chance. This occurs when researchers search for a maximally predictive statistical model based on a particular dataset and engage in several trial-and-error steps that are rarely disclosed in published articles. We describe systematic capitalization on chance, distinguish it from unsystematic capitalization on chance, address five common practices that capitalize on chance, and offer actionable strategies to minimize the capitalization on chance and improve the reproducibility and replicability of future IB research.
John Boudreau, Wayne Cascio
Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance,Vol. 4, Issue 2, Pages: 119-126.
This paper shows that the ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors behind the lack of greater use of human capital analytics represent fertile ground for future research and implications for practitioners on both ends.
Kevin HC Cheng, C Harry Hui, Wayne F Cascio
Frontiers in psychology,Vol. 8, Pages: 521.
Some researchers assume that employees’ personality characteristics affect leniency in rating others and themselves. However, little research has investigated these two tendencies at the same time. In the present study we developed one index for other-rating leniency and another one for self-rating leniency. Based on a review of the literature, we hypothesized that a generous assessment of peers would more likely be made by those who are extroverted and agreeable than by those who are not. Furthermore, a generous assessment of oneself would more likely be made by people who are conscientious and emotionally stable, than by people who are not. We also investigated if the leniency in rating others and the leniency in rating oneself are part of a more general leniency tendency. Data collected from a sample of real estate dealers provided support for the above hypotheses. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
Wayne F. Cascio and Ramiro Montealegre
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Volume 3, pp. 349-375
Given the rapid advances and the increased reliance on technology, the question of how it is changing work and employment is highly salient for scholars of organizational psychology and organizational behavior (OP/OB). This article attempts to interpret the progress, direction, and purpose of current research on the effects of technology on work and organizations. After a review of key breakthroughs in the evolution of technology, we consider the disruptive effects of emerging information and communication technologies. We then examine numbers and types of jobs affected by developments in technology, and how this will lead to significant worker dislocation. To illustrate technology’s impact on work, work systems, and organizations, we present four popular technologies: electronic monitoring systems, robots, teleconferencing, and wearable computing devices. To provide insights regarding what we know about the effects of technology for OP/OB scholars, we consider the results of research conducted from four different perspectives on the role of technology in management. We also examine how that role is changing in the emerging world of technology. We conclude by considering approaches to six human resources (HR) areas supported by traditional and emerging technologies, identifying related research questions that should have profound implications both for research and for practice, and providing guidance for future research.
Wayne F. Cascio and John W. Boudreau
Journal of World Business, Volume 51, Issue 1, Pp. 103–114
This article describes the evolution of the search for global competence through a 50-year content analysis and review of published research in the field of International HR Management (IHRM), and more recently, Talent Management (TM), with special emphasis on the Journal of World Business. We present a detailed examination of the IHRM/TM content of the Journal of World Business from its inception in 1965 through 2014. To put the results of that review into perspective, we review key themes in global business and strategy from 1965 to the present, noting where IHRM/TM research and business trends correspond, diverge, and lag. Next, we present a brief history of IHRM and TM, showing how the emerging theme of TM offers challenges and promise for connecting future IHRM/TM research with emerging business, strategy, and social trends. We conclude with the implications of our findings for future research, and the importance of the search for global competence.
Wayne F. Cascio
Human Resource Management, Volume 54, Issue 3, May/June 2015, Pp. 423–426
Strategic human resource management (SHRM) is the choice, alignment, and integration of an organization’s HRM system so its human capital resources most effectively contribute to strategic business objectives. Kaufman’s review (this issue) of four books in the field revealed key differences in two areas: the intended audience (academics and general managers versus researchers only) and orientation (the use of field observer and participant observation methods versus ivory tower scientism). Overemphasis on the latter produces research that is relevant only to academics and that is not used in organizations. I argue, as have others, that in addition to rigor, a successful scientific discipline must prove itself relevant to the society in which it is embedded. Hence, the objectives of SHRM should be twofold: to influence academic thinking and conceptualizing, but also to alter the way managers set priorities and make decisions. To do that, researchers have to work directly with managers. The challenge is to create models that reflect a broader view of performance as well as more complete taxonomies of internal and external factors that help shape business and HR strategies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Akram Al Ariss, Wayne F. Cascio, and Jaap Paauwe
Journal of World Business, Volume 49, Issue 2, P. 173–179
Research on Talent Management (TM) has been lagging behind businesses in offering vision and leadership in this field. After sketching a comprehensive outline of knowledge about TM, theoretical as well as practical, we introduce the papers in this special issue and their important contributions. This introductory article contributes to filling the knowledge gap by offering a research agenda at multiple levels and in multiple contexts. We also discuss methodological issues in the study of TM, and conclude by identifying several key trends that are now, and will continue to influence the practice and study of TM in the future.
Wayne F. Cascio
Human Resource Development International, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pp. 121-128
Global economic recovery from years of depressed growth has accelerated voluntary turnover, along with employer concerns about retention. More employers are also promoting from within their ranks, and this has put growing emphasis on HRD and career-development initiatives. This article argues that the biggest winners in this emerging economic environment, at least from a talent perspective, are organizations with positive employer brands, performance management strategies that help employees develop expertise that maximizes their potential, and innovative approaches to the design and delivery of HRD initiatives, especially technology-delivered instruction (e.g., mobile and virtual applications, simulations, MOOCs) and social-learning tools (e.g., wikis, communities of practice, social media). These strategies are by no means exhaustive, but they are three key elements of employee retention.
JW Boudreau, WF Cascio
Employment Relations Today, Spring 2014
Research shows that this is generally true, 4 except during financial crises, during which the risk-return trade-off disappears, due to the “flight-to-safety” phenomenon. Much of the current attention to human-capital risk emerged as a direct result of the recent financial ..
Wayne F. Cascio
Advances in Developing Human Resources February 2014 vol. 16 no. 1, pp. 108-122
The Problem We live in uncertain times, exacerbated by many direct and indirect effects of the global financial crisis. However, there is a lack of understanding about how human resource development (HRD) is responding to the global financial crisis or how HRD scholars and practitioners can best respond to these new realities and thus successfully ensure the future of HRD.
The Solution To appreciate the future, it is critical to understand the past. Thus, this reflective piece outlines several factors that have caused, and continue to cause, uncertainty in the global economy, including structural changes in labor markets and developments in technology. A literature review revealed several HRD responses of firms to these new realities. These include technology-delivered instruction and social-learning tools. The article concludes by identifying characteristics of effective training and examines some distinctive practices of three firms that have been recognized as the global best in class for their leadership-development efforts.
The Stakeholders Scholars and practitioners interested in the HRD, technology-delivered instruction, and social-learning fields.
Wayne Cascio and John Boudreau
Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp.77 – 97
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to suggest that in the arena of human capital, risk-mitigation may overshadow risk-optimized decisions, and show how a more balanced approach can be achieved by understanding and applying frameworks from behavioral decision theory, as well as framing human capital risk using tools and frameworks that have a long history in other management arenas, such as finance.
Design/methodology/approach – Review risk-optimization frameworks in human resource and general management, distill key connections, suggest ways to enhance risk optimization for human capital, and offer suggestions for future research and practice.
Findings – For human capital, risk-mitigation may overshadow risk-optimization, a balanced approach can be achieved by applying behavioral decision theory and by using frameworks from other management arenas, such as finance.
Practical implications – Organizations must acknowledge and skillfully manage the connections between human capital and competitive strategy in this emerging arena of human capital risk, or they will miss key strategic opportunities.
Originality/value – Attention to human capital risk has largely emphasized minimizing or controlling unwanted outcomes, but the paper proposes that risk-optimization requires balanced attention to risk-taking as well.
Wayne F. Cascio and Fred Luthans
Journal of Management Inquiry, Volume 23 Issue 1, pp. 51-67
Nelson Mandela and other political prisoners from South Africa were imprisoned on notorious Robben Island from the mid-1960s until the end of the apartheid regime in 1991. The stark conditions and abusive treatment of these prisoners has been widely publicized. However, upon reflection and in retrospect, over the years, a type of metamorphosis occurred. Primarily drawing from firsthand accounts of the former prisoners and guards, it seems that Robben Island morphed from the traditional oppressive prison paradigm to one where the positively oriented prisoners disrupted the institution with a resulting climate of learning and transformation that eventually led to freedom and the end of apartheid. At a macro level of analysis, we use the theoretical lens of institutional work, and, at a micro level, positive psychological capital (hope, efficacy, resiliency, and optimism) to explain what happened. This metamorphosis led to one of, if not the greatest, societal transformations in modern history. We conclude by discussing some implications and lessons learned for organizational scholars and practitioners.
Marion Festing, Pawan S. Budhwar, Wayne Cascio, Peter J. Dowling, Hugh Scullion
German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management, Vol. 27 Issue 3, March 2013, P. 161-166
International Human Resource Management (IHRM) has become an important field of research. The first textbook on International Human Resource Management is approaching its 25th birthday (Dowling & Schuler, 1990; Dowling, Festing, & Engle,
2013) and the first journal dedicated to the investigation of human resource management topics in an international context established in 1989, the International Journal of Human Resource Management, is also close to it 25th Volume. Another specialized journal dedicated to international staff mobility, the Journal of Global Mobility, has been established by a group of prominent IHRM researchers this year. A regular conference dedicated to IHRM was established in the late 1980s and for more than 20 years this conference has convened biennially. It still enjoys strong support and the 13th Conference will be organized in Cracow, Poland in 2014.