Sim B. Sitkin, C. Chet Miller, and Kelly E. See
Harvard Business Review, JVol. 95, Issue 1, Pages: 93-99
What executive hasn’t dreamed of transforming an organization by achieving seemingly impossible goals through the sheer force of will? We’re not talking about merely challenging goals. We’re talking about management moon shots—goals that appear unattainable given current practices, skills, and knowledge. In the parlance of the business world, these are often referred to as stretch goals. Our research suggests that though the use of stretch goals is quite common, successful use is not. Before launching stretch goals in sales, production, quality, or any other realm, how can you be confident that your grand aspirations will trigger positive attitudes and actions rather than negative ones? We focus on providing clear guidelines for assessing when stretch goals do and do not make sense, and when to employ them rather than set more achievable objectives.
Marlene A Smith, Susan M Keaveney
Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education,Vol. 15, Issue 1, Pages: 82-100.
This article discusses the development and delivery of online courses for the executive education audience. The goal is to introduce a new framework, the technical/strategic paradigm, that will help educators to identify the pedagogical needs of disparate executive groups and adjust their online course development plans accordingly. We describe how four key elements of online courses (course structure, content-based learning materials, assignments, and learning assessment) should be fashioned in a way …
Traci Sitzmann, Bradford S Bell
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,Vol. 138, Pages: 1-14.
We test two potential boundary conditions for the effects of subconscious goalsthe nature of the goal that is activated (achievement vs. underachievement) and conscious goal striving. Subconscious achievement goals increase the amount of time devoted to skill acquisition, and this increase in resource allocation leads to higher performance when conscious goals are neutral. However, specific conscious goals undermine the performance benefits of subconscious achievement goals. Subconscious underachievement goals …
Asia-Pacific Journal of Risk and Insurance,Vol. 11, Issue 2,
This study examines diversification-performance relationship in the US property-liability insurance industry over the period of 1996-2010. Unlike prior studies that rely on the conditional mean estimation method, we employ quantile regression, which captures the heterogeneous effects of diversification on conditional return distribution. The results show that diversification does not necessarily drive down risk-adjusted returns and its effects vary along return distribution. We find that there is a diversification discount for firms in the …
Jeungbo Shim, Seung-Hwan Lee
Asia-Pacific Journal of Risk and Insurance,Vol. 11, Issue 1,
Copulas can be a useful tool to capture heavy-tailed dependence between risks in estimating economic capital. This paper provides a procedure of combining copula with GARCH model to construct a multivariate distribution. The copula-based GARCH model using a skewed student’s t-distribution controls for the issues of skewness, heavy tails, volatility clustering and conditional dependencies contained in the financial time series data. Using the sample of US property liability insurance industry, we perform Monte Carlo …
Andreas Milidonis, Takeshi Nishikawa, Jeungbo Shim
Journal of Risk and Insurance,In Press
We examine the incentive effects of CEO inside debt holdings (pensions and deferred compensation) on risk taking using the sample of US publicly traded property-liability insurers. To represent managerial risk taking, we employ value at risk (VaR) and expected shortfall (ES), which capture extreme movements in the lower tail of insurer stock return distribution. We also estimate firm default risk, equity volatilities, and insurance-related risk as alternative measures of risk taking. We document that inside debt …
William M. Foster, Diego M. Coraiola, Roy Suddaby, Jochem Kroezen, David Chandler
Business History,Vol. 59, Issue 8, Pages: 1176-1200.
History has long been recognised as a strategic and organisational resource. However, until recently, the advantage conferred by history was attributed to a firm’s ability to accumulate heterogeneous resources or develop opaque practices. In contrast, we argue that the advantage history confers on organisations is based on understanding when the knowledge of the past is referenced and the reasons why it is strategically communicated. We argue that managers package this knowledge in historical narratives to address …
Ruiliang Yan, Zixia Cao
Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services,Vol. 34, Pages: 193-200.
In this research, we develop a fresh analytical model to examine the impact of brand quality on the firms’ performances when two firms selling substitute products form a brand alliance. Our results indicate that when two products have equal brand qualities, brand alliance is always a beneficial strategy for two firms to employ. However, when two products have different brand qualities, brand quality differential shows a positive relationship with the profit of the firm with the low-quality brand but demonstrates a …
Jenna J Burke, Rani Hoitash, Udi Hoitash
Journal of Business Ethics,Pages: 1-26.
This paper explores an increasingly prevalent element of board-level commitment to sustainability. We propose a theoretical framework under which the existence and associated actions of board-level sustainability committees are motivated by shared value creation, where the interests of a diverse group of stakeholders are satisfied and sufficient profit is achieved. Using hand-collected data, we find that sustainability committees are heterogeneous in focus and vary in their effectiveness. Specifically, we disaggregate the …
Madhavan Parthasarathy, David Forlani
Journal of Business Market Management,Vol. 9, Issue 2, Pages: 650-676.
The purpose of this research was to develop a framework capable of classifying the reasons behind the discontinuance of supplier-distributor relationships. Using a sample of CEO’s who manage intra-national and multi-national firms, a study was run to test a typology of discontinuance built around diffusion theory’s source of influence construct (eg, the origin and valence of the information that initiates a discontinuance decision). The three types are called New Day, Strike 3 and Greener Grass. Results support the proposed typology and …
Robert F. Gary, Jared A. Moore, Craig A. Sisneros, and William D. Terando
Advances in Accounting, Volume 34, Pp. 55–63
We examine how tax rates impact investment by corporations in the stock market. We regress changes in intercorporate investment on changes in the various individual and corporate top statutory marginal tax rates (MTRs). We find a significant negative association between changes in individual capital gains MTRs and changes in intercorporate investment, while no such association is evident for changes in either individual ordinary or dividend MTRs. These results support the notion that corporations respond to the after-tax rate of return and/or market efficiency consequences brought about by a change in individual capital gains MTRs. We find a significant positive relation between changes in intercorporate investment and changes in corporate MTRs on ordinary income. These results are consistent with corporations scaling back expansion plans and instead investing free cash flows in equity securities as MTRs increase.
Yufeng Han, Ting Hu, Jian Yang
Journal of Banking & Finance,Vol. 70, Pages: 214-234.
We provide evidence that a simple moving average timing strategy, when applied to portfolios of commodity futures, can generate superior performance to the buy-and-hold strategy. The outperformance is very robust. It can survive the transaction costs in the futures markets, it is not concentrated in a particular subperiod, and is robust to short-sale constraints, alternative specifications of the moving average lag length, alternative construction of the continuous time-series of futures prices, and impact from data mining. …
Gary Kochenberger, Fred Glover
Networks,Vol. 68, Issue 1, Pages: 3-3.
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James H Gerlach, Chorng-Guang Wu, Lawrence F Cunningham, Clifford E Young
International Journal of Open Source Software and Processes (IJOSSP),Vol. 7, Issue 3, Pages: 20-38.
This article reports on an exploratory study of the causes and effects of conflict within the open source software project, Debian. Conflict arose when the project leader decided to introduce payment for select volunteers within an all-volunteer project to speed up the release of Debian. The study utilized the theoretical framework of Boltanski and Thvenot for understanding disputes. The results of the survey of Debian developers show that the conditions for conflict were complex and were driven by perception of misuse of …
Robert I Webb, Jian Yang, Jin Zhang
The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics,Vol. 53, Issue 1, Pages: 29-49.
Housing prices, like the prices of other speculative assets, contain a mix of both small and large changes (ie, jumps). We apply a jump-GARCH model to monthly Case-Shiller housing price indexes of twenty cities in the US during the period January 1991 through December 2011. We document the evidence of large housing price jumps in many cities, during both the financial crisis and non-crisis periods. The housing price jump intensity observed during the whole sample is largely explained by city, state and national …
Jiadong Tong, Zijun Wang, Jian Yang
Journal of Futures Markets,Vol. 36, Issue 7, Pages: 695-718.
We apply a new model selection approach that allows for the joint determination of structural breaks and cointegration to examine the term structure of Chinese Renminbi (RMB)-US dollar spot and forward exchange rates during the managed-floating period of 2005-2013. We find that the RMB market has exhibited different dynamic relationships between spot and forward exchange rates over time, apparently due to significant policy changes. Offshore forward rates with either shorter or longer maturities can substantially …
Vinit M Desai
Journal of Management,Pages: 0149206316659112.
Third-party accreditations and certifications can provide legitimacy or signal trustworthiness about an organization and its products or services, and with very little exception, the vast majority of research on these labels focuses on their benefits. Yet the value of becoming accredited may change dramatically over time. Little research, if any, has examined the processes through which this occurs. Here, I develop theory about three mechanisms that could each tarnish the value of accreditation and reduce its performance impact. First,” …
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 59 Issue 3, pp. 860-879
The Behavioral Theory of the Firm provides a well-evidenced perspective on organizational decision making that has influenced a wide array of literatures, including the substantial body of work on organizational change. This literature suggests that organizations are more likely to undertake major changes when their performance declines below aspirations or targets for acceptable performance, but few studies examine how multiple groups of organizational decision makers, each with potentially conflicting interests, might collectively influence this process. To that end, I incorporate theory regarding corporate boards and their role in organizational decision making. I use this integration to suggest that boards with particular characteristics may have interests that do not align with those of the management team when performance shortfalls occur, using their influence to force compromises or compel managers to reconsider particular changes. I find support for the related predictions that an increase in board size and equity ownership suppresses change when performance drops, although I find no support for similar arguments regarding board turnover. This approach blends the typically distinct but related literatures on performance feedback and corporate governance, and suggests the role that some boards might play in circumventing the momentum for organizational change.
Rebecca Wyland, Scott W. Lester, Kyle Ehrhardt and Rhetta Standifer
Journal of Business and Psychology, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 187–203
Purpose: This study provides a comprehensive examination of how the work–school interface relates to work outcomes such as task performance and job satisfaction. Additionally, this study builds upon past research by examining a range of work- and school-related resources and demands that collectively influence the work–school interface.
Design/Methodology/Approach: Data were obtained from 170 working undergraduate students at multiple time points over the course of a semester, as well as from participants’ supervisors at the organizations in which the students work.
Findings: The strongest antecedent of job satisfaction, interpersonal facilitation, and job performance was work–school facilitation. Demands in one role create pressures in the other. Contrary to expectations, job demands positively related to work–school facilitation, while school demands positively related to school–work facilitation.
Implications: For practitioners, this study highlights the need to better understand the interplay between school and work roles for employees at a time when continuing education is emphasized. Employers benefit from the performance gains and positive attitudinal shifts that stem from experiences of facilitation between roles. From a theoretical perspective, this study reveals a unique pattern of results that adds to our understanding of the dynamics involved in the integrated work–school routines of working students.
Originality/Value: This is one of the first studies to investigate the relationships between four bi-directional forms of the work–school interface and subsequent multi-source assessments of organizational outcomes. As such, it offers an examination of how conflict and facilitation from both the work and school domains relate to work outcomes.
Jahangir Karimi, Zhiping Walter
Long Range Planning, Volume 49, Issue 3, Pp. 342–360
Recently, Internet and digitization, along with major news and information companies, have disrupted traditional newspaper companies’ business models, and raised serious concerns about the future viability of the print newspaper industry. This study provides a theoretical viewpoint, supported by empirical evidence from the newspaper industry, on how prominent corporate entrepreneurship attributes impact disruptive business model innovation adoption, and how such adoption impacts business model performance. It finds that, while autonomy, risk-taking, and proactiveness do have positive associations with the extent of adoption of disruptive business model innovation, innovativeness does not. Further, disruptive business model innovation adoption has a nonlinear association with business model performance. We conclude the paper by discussing theoretical implications of the study and by providing strategies that entrepreneurs and technology managers can use to adjust their corporate entrepreneurship activities in their effort to successfully adopt disruptive business model innovation.