Tag Archives: Aguinis

Scale coarseness as a methodological artifact: Correcting correlation coefficients attenuated from using coarse scales

Aguinis, H., Pierce, C. A., & Culpepper, S. A.
Organizational Research Methods , Vol. 12 Issue 4, pp. 623-652

Scale coarseness is a pervasive yet ignored methodological artifact that attenuates observed
correlation coefficients in relation to population coefficients. The authors describe how to
disattenuate correlations that are biased by scale coarseness in primary-level as well as metaanalytic studies and derive the sampling error variance for the corrected correlation. Results of two Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the correction procedure is accurate and show the extent to which coarseness biases the correlation coefficient under various conditions (i.e., value of the population correlation, number of item scale points, and number of scale items).
The authors also offer a Web-based computer program that disattenuates correlations at the primary-study level and computes the sampling error variance as well as confidence intervals for the corrected correlation. Using this program, which implements the correction in primary- level studies, and incorporating the suggested correction in meta-analytic reviews will lead to more accurate estimates of construct-level correlation coefficients.

Using Web-based frame-of-reference training to decrease biases in personality-based job analysis: An experimental field study

Aguinis, H., Mazurkiewicz, M. D., & Heggestad, E. D.
Personnel Psychology Summer2009, Vol. 62 Issue 2, p. 405-438.

We identify sources of biases in personality-based job analysis (PBJA) ratings and offer a web-based frame-of-reference (FOR) training program to mitigate these biases. Given the use of job analysis data for the development of staffing, performance management, and many other human resource management systems, using biased PBJA ratings is likely to lead to a workforce that is increasingly homogenous in terms of personality, but not necessarily a workforce with improved levels of performance. We conducted a field experiment (i.e., full random assignment) using two independent samples of employees in a city government and found evidence in support of the presence of biases as well as the effectiveness of the proposed solution. Specifically, FOR training was successful at decreasing the average correlation between job incumbents’ self-reported personality and PBJA ratings from .27 to .07 (administrative support assistants) and from .30 to .09 (supervisors). Also, FOR training was successful at decreasing mean PBJA ratings by d = .44 (administrative support assistants) and by d = .68 (supervisors). We offer the entire set of web-based FOR training materials for use in future research and applications.

First Decade of Organizational Research Methods

Aguinis, Herman, Pierce, Charles, Bosco, Frank and Muslin, Ivan S.
Organizational Research Methods Vol. 12, Issue 1, p. 69-112

The authors conducted a content analysis of the 193 articles published in the first 10 volumes (1998 to 2007) of Organizational Research Methods (ORM). The most popular quantitative topics are surveys, temporal issues, and electronic/Web research (research design); validity, reliability, and level of analysis of the dependent variable (measurement); and multiple regression/correlation, structural equation modeling, and multilevel research (data analysis). The most popular qualitative topics are interpretive, policy capturing, and action research (research design); surveys and reliability (measurement); and interpretive, policy capturing, and content analysis (data analysis). The authors found upward trends in the attention devoted to surveys and electronic/Web research, interpretive, and action research (research design); level of analysis of the dependent variable and validity (measurement); and multilevel research (data analysis). Implications for training doctoral students, retooling researchers, future research on methodology, the advancement of the organizational sciences, and the extent to which ORM is fulfilling its mission are discussed.

Benefits of training and development for individuals and teams, organizations, and society

Aguinis, H., & Kraiger, K.
Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 60

This article provides a review of the training and development literature since the year 2000. We review the literature focusing on the benefits of training and development for individuals and teams, organizations, and society. Our review, which adopts a multi-disciplinary, multi-level, and global perspective, demonstrates that training and development activities in work organizations can produce important benefits for each of these stakeholders. We also review the literature on needs assessment and pre-training states, training design and delivery, training evaluation, and transfer of training to identify the conditions under which the benefits of training and development are maximized. Finally, we also identify research gaps and offer directions for future research.

Research in industrial and organizational psychology from 1963 to 2007: Changes, choices, and trends

Cascio, W. F., & Aguinis, H.
Journal of Applied Psychology Vol. 93 Issue 5, p. 1062-1081

We conducted a content analysis of all articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology from January 1963 to May 2007 (N = 5,780) to identify the relative attention devoted to each of 15 broad topical areas and 50 more specific sub-areas in the field of industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology. Results revealed that some areas have become more (or less) popular over time, whereas others have not changed much, and that there are some lagged relationships between important societal issues that involve people and work settings (i.e., human-capital trends) and I/O psychology research that addresses them. Also, much I/O psychology research does not address human-capital trends. Extrapolating results from the past 45 years to the next decade suggests that the field of I/O psychology is not likely to become more visible, more relevant to society at large, or even to achieve the lofty goals it has set for itself unless researchers, practitioners, universities, and professional organizations implement several types of changes. For example, researchers can make more conscious decisions about which topics to tackle and collaborate more often with practitioners. Universities can re-think the incentive structure of academic research and consider offering sabbaticals for academics in business practice. Academics can re-think graduate training, as well as the socialization and mentoring of new faculty members. Finally, professional associations can offer joint academic practitioner sessions at conferences, in which both groups can work together on important problems; and certification bodies can incorporate more research-based content into
examinations.

First Decade Of ORM: Trends In Design, Measurement, And Data-Analysis Topics

Aguinis, Herman, Pierce, Charles, Bosco, Frank, and Muslin, Ivan
Academy of Management Proceedings; 2008, p. 1-6

We conducted a content analysis of the 193 articles published in the first 10 volumes (1998-2007) of Organizational Research Methods (ORM). We identified more and less popular quantitative and qualitative topics, trends over time, and compared these topics with the methodological tools needed for theory testing in the organizational sciences.

Staffing twenty-first-century organizations

Cascio, W. F, & Aguinis, H.
Academy of Management Annals, Vol. 2, p. 133-165

We highlight important differences between twenty-first-century organizations as compared with those of the previous century, and offer a critical review of the basic principles, typical applications, general effectiveness, and limitations of the current staffing model. That model focuses on identifying and measuring job-related individual characteristics to predict individual level job performance. We conclude that the current staffing model has reached a ceiling or plateau in terms of its ability to make accurate predictions about future performance. Evidence accumulated over more than 80 years of staffing research suggests that general mental abilities and other traditional staffing tools do a modest job of predicting performance across settings and
jobs considering that, even when combined and corrected for methodological and statistical artifacts, they rarely predict more than 50% of the variance in performance. Accordingly, we argue for a change in direction in staffing research and propose an expanded view of the staffing process, including the introduction of a new construct, in situperformance, and an expanded view of staffing tools to be used to predict future in situperformance that take into account time and context. Our critical review offers a novel perspective and research agenda with the goal of guiding future research that will result in more useful, applicable, relevant, and effective knowledge for practitioners to use in organizational settings.

Moving beyond a legal-centric approach to managing workplace romances: Organizationally sensible recommendations for HR leaders

Pierce, C. A., & Aguinis, H.
Human Resource Management, In Press

The goal of this article is to encourage HR leaders to think more strategically about managing workplace romances. The traditional management approach is legal-centric in that it focuses on
minimizing risks of workplace romance. We advocate embedding the legal-centric approach within a broader and more strategic organizationally sensible approach that provides a balanced focus on minimizing risks and maximizing rewards of workplace romance. Drawing from the empirical workplace romance literature, we derive a set of organizationally sensible best-practice
recommendations that HR leaders can adopt to manage risks and rewards of romantic relationships in organizations. Implementing our more strategic recommendations should provide the added benefit of elevating HR professionals’ roles as organizational leaders.

Perceived entrepreneurial success and social power

Aguinis, H., Ansari, M. A., Jayasingam, S., & Aafaqi, R.
Management Research, Vol. 6, P. 121-137.

Based on the leadership, entrepreneurship, and issue selling literature, we hypothesized that entrepreneurs who are perceived to be successful can be differentiated from unsuccessful entrepreneurs based on their degree and type of social power. We conducted a field experiment including 305 Malaysian managers with considerable experience in working with entrepreneurs and in entrepreneurial environments. Entrepreneurs perceived to be successful were ascribed greater referent, information, expert, connection, and reward power; less coercive power; and similar legitimate power than unsuccessful entrepreneurs. These results provide evidence in support of social power as a distinguishing individual characteristic of successful entrepreneurs and make a contribution to theories linking social capital with entrepreneurial success. Aspiring entrepreneurs need to be aware that their social power profile is associated with various degrees of perceived success. Our paper points to the need to investigate variables beyond personality and that are more directly relevant to social and interpersonal interactions that may differentiate entrepreneurs perceived to be successful from those who are not.

Broadening international perspectives on the legal environment for personnel selection

Myors, B., Lievens, F., Schollaert, E., Van Hoye, G., Cronshaw, S. F., Mladinic, A., Rodríguez, V., Aguinis, H., Steiner, D. D., Rolland, F., Schuler, H., Frintrup, A., Nikolaou, I., Tomprou, M., Subramony, S., Raj, S. B., Tzafrir, S., Bamberger, P. Bertolino, M., Mariani, M., Fraccaroli, F., Sekiguchi, T., Onyura, B., Yang, H., Anderson, N., Evers, A., Chernyshenko, O., Englert, P., Kriek, H.J., Joubert, T., Salgado, J. F., König, C.J., Thommen, L. A., Chuang, A., Sinangil, H. K., Bayazit, M., Cook, M., Shen, W., & Sackett, P. R.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, Vol. 1, p. 266-270.

We are pleased that our article (Myors et al., 2008) prompted this most useful set of commentaries. The goal of our article was to highlight similarities and differences in the
legal environment for personnel selection across a broad range of countries. Whereas
some articles in this journal present a point of view that prompts considerable disagreement
and challenge from commentators, our article is largely descriptive, and thus, the role of commentators is to expand upon the perspectives offered in our article rather than to take issue with them. We believe that the commentators have accomplished just that and they offer a most useful supplement to our article.

International perspectives on the legal environment for selection

Myors, B., Lievens, F., Schollaert, E., Van Hoye, G., Cronshaw, S. F., Mladinic, A., Rodríguez, V., Aguinis, H., Steiner, D. D., Rolland, F., Schuler, H., Frintrup, A., Nikolaou, I., Tomprou, M., Subramony, S., Raj, S. B., Tzafrir, S., Bamberger, P. Bertolino, M., Mariani, M., Fraccaroli, F., Sekiguchi, T., Onyura, B., Yang, H., Anderson, N., Evers, A., Chernyshenko, O., Englert, P., Kriek, H.J., Joubert, T., Salgado, J. F., König, C.J., Thommen, L. A., Chuang, A., Sinangil, H. K., Bayazit, M., Cook, M., Shen, W., & Sackett, P. R.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, Vol. 1, pp. 206-246.

Perspectives from 22 countries on aspects of the legal environment for selection are presented in this article. Issues addressed include (a) whether there are racial/ethnic/religious subgroups viewed as ‘‘disadvantaged,’’ (b) whether research documentsmean differences between groups on individual differencemeasures relevant to job performance, (c) whether there are laws prohibiting discrimination against specific groups, (d) the evidence required to make and refute a claim of discrimination, (e) the consequences of violation of the laws, (f) whether particular selection methods are limited or banned, (g) whether preferential treatment of members of disadvantaged groups is permitted, and (h) whether the practice of industrial and organizational psychology has been affected by the legal environment.

From charm to harm: A content-analytic review of sexual harassment court cases involving workplace romance

Pierce, C. A., Muslin, I. S., Dudley, C. M., & Aguinis, H.
Management Research, Vol, 6, p. 27-45.

We reviewed U.S. federal and state sexual harassment court cases involving a prior workplace romance between the plaintiff and alleged harasser. Results of our content analysis show that, unlike employees’ decisions, judges’ decisions can be predicted from legal but not ethically salient extralegal case features. Hence, when compared to prior research, our study reveals the following discrepancy: judges follow a traditional legal model, whereas employees follow an ethical model when making decisions about romance-harassment cases. Our study also reveals that the mere presence (versus absence) of a prior romance reduces the likelihood of a plaintiff’s success in a harassment case. We discuss implications for management practice and research from the perspective of legal and ethical decision making.

Enhancing the relevance of organizational behavior by embracing performance management research

Aguinis, Herman and Pierce, Charles A
Journal of Organizational Behavior Vol. 29, Issue 1, p. 139-145

There is a science-practice gap in organizational behavior (OB) whereby entire bodies of scholarly knowledge are ignored by practitioners. We identify research needed to improve performance management practices that is likely to enhance the relevance of OB in the eyes of practitioners and thus help reduce the science-practice gap.

Teaching The Concept Of The Sampling Distribution Of The Mean

Aguinis, Herman and Branstetter, Steven A.
Journal of Management Education Vol. 31, Issue 4, p. 467-483

The authors use proven cognitive and learning principles and recent developments in the field of educational psychology to teach the concept of the sampling distribution of the mean, which is arguably one of the most central concepts in inferential statistics. The proposed pedagogical approach relies on cognitive load, contiguity, and experiential learning theories and on the integration of new knowledge within previously formed knowledge structures. Thus, the proposed approach stimulates both visual and auditory learning, engages students in the process of learning through problem solving, and presents information so that it builds on existing knowledge. Results of an experiment including introductory statistics undergraduate students indicate that students exposed to the proposed theory- based pedagogical approach enhanced their learning by approximately 60%.

Understanding the impact of test validity and bias on selection errors and adverse impact in human resource selection

Aguinis, Herman and Smith, Marlene A.
Personnel Psychology Vol. 60 Issue 1, p. 165-199

We propose an integrative framework for understanding the relationship among 4 closely related issues in human resource (HR) selection: test validity, test bias, selection errors, and adverse impact. One byproduct of our integrative approach is the concept of a previously undocumented source of selection errors we call bias-based selection errors (i.e., errors that arise from using a biased test as if it were unbiased). Our integrative framework provides researchers and practitioners with a unique tool that generates numerical answers to questions such as the following: What are the anticipated consequences for bias-based selection errors of various degrees of test validity and test bias? What are the anticipated consequences for adverse impact of various degrees of test validity and test bias? From a theory point of view, our framework provides a more complete picture of the selection process by integrating 4 key concepts that have not been examined simultaneously thus far. From a practical point of view, our framework provides test developers, employers, and policy makers a broader perspective and new insights regarding practical consequences associated with various selection systems that vary on their degree of validity and bias. We present a computer program available online to perform all needed calculations.

Computation of effect size for moderating effects of categorical variables in multiple regression

Aguinis, H., & Pierce, C. A.
Applied Psychological Measurement Vol. 30, Issue 3, p. 440-442
[available at http://carbon.ucdenver.edu/~haguinis/pubs.html ]

We provide a user-friendly description of a modified f 2 effect-size estimate for categorical moderator variables in multiple regression. We recommend that this modified f 2 statistic be used when the homogeneity of error variance assumption is violated. Many researchers in the social sciences may not report effect-size estimates because the tools needed to compute these estimates are not readily available. To increase researchers’ awareness of f 2 in general and to increase the accessibility of computing modified f 2 values, we also describe an on-line program that performs all computations needed and offer this program free-of-charge at the following URL: http://carbon.ucdenver.edu/~haguinis/mmr/fsquared. A benefit of using this program is that, once computed, researchers are able to compare the magnitude of their modified f 2 values to values commonly observed in the social sciences as determined by Aguinis, Beaty, Boik, and Pierce’s (2005) 30-year review of the size of moderating effects of categorical variables.

Teaching the concept of the sampling distribution of the mean

Aguinis, H., & Branstetter, S. A.
Journal of Management Education (In Press)
[available at http://carbon.ucdenver.edu/~haguinis/pubs.html ]

We use proven cognitive and learning principles and recent developments in the field of educational psychology to teach the concept of the sampling distribution of the mean, which is arguably one of the most central concepts in inferential statistics. The proposed pedagogical approach relies on cognitive load, contiguity, and experiential learning theories and on the integration of new knowledge within previously formed knowledge structures. Thus, the proposed approach stimulates both visual and auditory learning, engages students in the process of learning through problem solving, and presents information so that it builds on existing knowledge. Results of an experiment including introductory statistics undergraduate students indicate that students exposed to the proposed theory-based pedagogical approach enhanced their learning by approximately 60%.

Comparison of three meta-analytic procedures for estimating moderating effects of categorical variables

Aguinis, Herman, Sturman, M.C., & Pierce, C.A.
Organizational Research Methods (In Press)
[available at http://carbon.ucdenver.edu/~haguinis/pubs.html ]

We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to compare the Hedges-Olkin (1985), Hunter-Schmidt (1990, 2004), and a refinement of the Aguinis-Pierce (1998) meta-analytic approaches for estimating moderating effects of categorical variables. The simulation examined binary moderator variables (e.g., gender–male, female; ethnicity–majority, minority). We compared the three meta-analytic methods in terms of their point estimation accuracy as well as Type I and Type II error rates. Results provide guidelines to help researchers choose among the three meta-analytic techniques based on theory (i.e., exploratory vs. confirmatory research) and research design considerations (i.e., degree of range restriction and measurement error).

Accounting for subordinate perceptions of supervisor power: An identity-dependence model

Farmer, S., & Aguinis, H.
Journal of Applied Psychology Vol. 90 Issue 6, pp. 1069-1083.

We present a model that explains how subordinates perceive the power of their supervisors and the causal mechanisms by which these perceptions translate into subordinate outcomes. Drawing on
identity and resource dependence theories, we propose that supervisors have power over their subordinates when they control resources needed for the subordinates’ enactment and maintenance of current and desired identities. The joint effect of perceptions of supervisor power and supervisor intentions to provide such resources leads to four conditions ranging from highly functional to highly dysfunctional: confirmation, hope, apathy, and progressive withdrawal. Each of these conditions is associated with specific outcomes such as the quality of the supervisor-subordinate relationship, turnover, and changes in the type and centrality of various subordinate identities.

Test development and use: New twists on old questions

Cascio, W. F., & Aguinis, H.
Human Resource Management, Vol. 44 Issue 3, pp. 219-235

Over the past several decades there have been some significant advances in psychological science, specifically, in our knowledge about important questions to address with respect to the development and use of assessment tools. This paper focuses on developments in research and guidelines for practice in five selected areas that, if applied, will lead to more informed use of assessment tools. The five areas that we discuss are: validity generalization, statistical significance testing, criterion measures, cutoff scores, and cross-validation.