Category Archives: Management

The Economic Impact of Employee Behaviors on Organizational Performance

Cascio, Wayne
California Management Review Vol. 48 Issue 4, p. 41-59

The behavior of employees has important effects on the operating expenses of organizations in both the private and public sectors. While these effects are not widely known (or even, in some cases, appreciated by employers), they are, nonetheless, quite substantial. This article considers some key areas where the behavior of employees has a meaningful financial impact on their organizations. The areas it examines are: the effects of high- versus low-wage employment strategies on employee turnover and productivity; the importance of employee retention; absenteeism and presenteeism; healthcare costs associated with unhealthy lifestyles; employee attitudes; payoffs from training through development programs; and payoffs from the use of valid staffing procedures. While these areas are by no means exhaustive, they are representative of those that most employers encounter. This article also presents strategies for employers to improve the performance of their organizations by managing people wisely and illustrates its analysis through a comparison of the employment strategies of two well-known retailers, Costco and Wal-Mart’s Sam’s Club.

Guiding Organizational Identity Through Aged Adolescence

Corley, Kevin G., Harquail, Celia V., Pratt, Michael G., Glynn, Mary Ann, Fiol, C. Marlene, & Hatch, Mary Jo
Journal of Management Inquiry Vol. 15, Issue 2, p. 85-99

In this article, the authors reflect on the past two decades of research on organizational identity, looking to its history and to its future. They do not provide a review of the literature, nor do they promote a particular perspective on the concept. Instead, they advocate pluralism in studying organizational identity while encouraging clarity and transparency in the articulation of definitions and core theoretical suppositions. Believing there is no one best approach to the study of organizational identity, their intent is to establish a reference point that can orient future work on organizational identity. They focus on three questions they feel are critical: What is the nomological net that embeds organizational identity? Is organizational identity “real” (or simply metaphorical)? and How do we define and conceptualize organizational identity? Last, they try to anticipate organizational identity issues on the horizon to suggest future directions for theory and research.

Examination Of Situational And Attitudinal Moderators Of The Hesitation And Performance Relation

Diefendorff, James M., Richard, Erin M., & Gosserand, Robin H.
Personnel Psychology Vol. 59, Issue 2, p. 365-393

The hesitation dimension of action-state orientation refers to the behavioral capacity to start action on tasks. In this study, job characteristics (autonomy and routineness) and job attitudes (satisfaction and involvement) were examined as moderators of the relation between hesitation and supervisor ratings of work behaviors (overall job performance and self-management performance) in 2 different samples. In both samples, routineness moderated the hesitation and self-management performance relation such that individuals low in hesitation performed better than individuals high in hesitation when routineness was low, but no differences in performance were observed when routineness was high. In addition, job satisfaction and job involvement were significant moderators of the relation between hesitation and self-management performance, with individuals low in hesitation performing better than individuals high in hesitation when satisfaction or involvement was low, but no differences in performance were observed when satisfaction or involvement was high.

Building the relationships required to influence others

O’Connor, Edward J. & Fiol, C. Marlena
Physician Executive Vol. 32, Issue 2, p. 68-69

A large, successful, multispecialty group practice held a spaghetti dinner. Physicians cooked spaghetti, served spaghetti, cleaned up and took a bit of ribbing. The people they were serving were their employees. The communication from the physicians was clear: All year long you serve us. Tonight we wish to serve you. We appreciate what you contribute. What have you done recently to express your appreciation, strengthen relationships and build the foundation for successfully influencing your people?

The Legal/Regulatory/Policy Environment of Cyberforensics

Bagby, J.W. and Ruhnka, J.C.
Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law Vol. 1, Issue 2, p. 39-67

This paper describes a cyber-forensics course that integrates important public policy and legal issues as well as relevant forensic techniques. Cyber-forensics refers to the amalgam of multi-disciplinary activities involved in the identification, gathering, handling, custody, use and security of electronic files and records, involving expertise from the forensic domain, and which produces evidence useful in the proof of facts for both commercial and legal activities. The legal and regulatory environment in which electronic discovery takes place is of critical importance to cyber-forensics experts because the legal process imposes both constraints and opportunities for the effective use of evidence gathered through cyber-forensic techniques. This paper discusses different pedagogies that can be used (including project teams, research and writing assignments, student presentations, case analyses, class activities and participation and examinations), evaluation methods, problem-based learning approaches and critical thinking analysis. A survey and evaluation is provided of the growing body of applicable print and online materials that can be utilized. Target populations for such a course includes students with majors, minors or supporting elective coursework in law, information sciences, information technology, computer science, computer engineering, financial fraud, security and information assurance, forensic aspects of cyber security, privacy, and electronic commerce.

Creating readiness and involvement

O’Connor, Edward J. & Fiol, C. Marlena
Physician Executive Vol. 32, Issue 1, p. 72-74

Innovation is critical to long-term success in today’s health care environment. Change is accelerating, competition increasing and access to information expanding. Many health care providers try to ignore these changing demands while continuing to practice past behaviors. Others react by leaving the profession in order to avoid having to make the required adjustments. Neither strategy contributes much to generating the innovation required to effectively deliver care in today’s environment.

Focusing Your People: The Power of Entrepreneurial Thinking.

O’Connor, Edward J. & Fiol, C. Marlena
Physician Executive Vol. 32, Issue 1, p. 18-33

The article presents information on the focused entrepreneurial thinking to provide quality medical care and strong financial health. Entrepreneurial focus is the key ingredient that may mean the difference between surviving and thriving as an organization. A physician executive needs to encourage taking the steps required to ensure that one’s reward must support the organization’s people’s commitment to quality, safety, and contribution. People throughout health care organizations often do not judge the potential of values and visioning processes.

Electronic Data Discovery: Integrating Due Process into Cyber Forensic Practice

John W. Bagby and John C. Ruhnka
Journal of Digital Forensics Security and Law Vol. 1, Issue 1, p. 5-18

Most organizations and government agencies regularly become engaged in litigation with suppliers, customers, clients, employees, competitors, shareholders, prosecutors or regulatory agencies that nearly assures the need to organize, retain, find and produce business records and correspondence, e-mails, accounting records or other data relevant to disputed issues. This article discusses some high visibility cases that constrain how metadata and content is routinely made available to opposing parties in civil litigation, to prosecutors in criminal prosecutions and to agency staff in regulatory enforcement litigation. Public policy, as implemented in the rules of evidence and pretrial discovery, restrict electronic data discovery (EDD) as it becomes a predominant and potentially costly pre-trial activity pivotal to modern litigation. This article discusses these constraints while identifying opportunities for the interdisciplinary activities among litigators, forensic experts and information technology professionals.

Revisiting the within-person self-efficacy and performance relationship

Richard, E. M., Diefendorff, J. M., & Martin, J. H.
Human Performance Vol. 19 Issue 1, pp. 67-87.

In response to recent debate regarding the direction of the relationship between self-efficacy and performance (Bandura & Locke, 2003; Vancouver, Thompson, Tischner, & Putka, 2002; Vancouver, Thompson, & Williams, 2001), the present investigation examines the within-person relationships between self-efficacy and performance over time in two different learning contexts. Study 1 examines the relationship using exam performance in a classroom context, and Study 2 examines the relationship using a computerized learning task in a lab setting. Both studies find a significant, positive within-person relationship between performance and subsequent self-efficacy. However, both studies fail to find the positive relationship between self-efficacy and subsequent performance predicted by social cognitive theory. Future research directions aimed at resolving the debate are discussed.

Resistance to Patient Safety Initiatives

O’Connor, Edward J. & Fiol, C. Marlena
Physician Executive Vol. 31 Issue 6, pp. 64-67

The article discusses how majority of medical errors are preventable through better systems, including the use of information technology, avoidance of similar sounding drugs and standardization of evidence-based protocols. Though the technology and systems critical to patient safety are available, medical errors continue in many health systems and limited progress has been made toward patient safety objectives. Resistance often blocks the implementation of needed changes. Open communication among people with different perspectives is a key requirement for minimizing this human barrier to improved patient safety outcomes.

Are emotional display rules formal job requirements? Examination of employee and supervisor perception

Diefendorff, J.M., Richard, E.M., & Croyle, M.H.
Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology Vol. 90 Issue 6, pp. 1256-1264.

This study explored whether emotional display rules are perceived by part-time employees and their supervisors as formal job requirements. Results showed that display-related behaviors were thought to be required activities (i.e., in-role) by the majority of the sample, and employees and supervisors generally agreed in this perception. Job-based differences in interpersonal requirements predicted the extent to which employees and supervisors categorized display-related behaviors as required, with more interpersonal requirements being associated with greater in-role categorization. Job-based differences in interpersonal requirements also predicted the level of agreement between employees and supervisors in categorizing display-related behaviors as in-role or extra-role. Finally, job satisfaction and job involvement predicted the extent to which employees categorized emotional display behaviors as being required in their jobs, with more satisfied and more involved individuals rating emotional display behaviors as in-role at a higher rate than less satisfied and less involved individuals

Accounting for subordinate perceptions of supervisor power: An identity-dependence model

Farmer, S., & Aguinis, H.
Journal of Applied Psychology Vol. 90 Issue 6, pp. 1069-1083.

We present a model that explains how subordinates perceive the power of their supervisors and the causal mechanisms by which these perceptions translate into subordinate outcomes. Drawing on
identity and resource dependence theories, we propose that supervisors have power over their subordinates when they control resources needed for the subordinates’ enactment and maintenance of current and desired identities. The joint effect of perceptions of supervisor power and supervisor intentions to provide such resources leads to four conditions ranging from highly functional to highly dysfunctional: confirmation, hope, apathy, and progressive withdrawal. Each of these conditions is associated with specific outcomes such as the quality of the supervisor-subordinate relationship, turnover, and changes in the type and centrality of various subordinate identities.

Moving Into and Through Transitions

O’Connor, Edward J. and Fiol, C. Marlena
Physician Executive Vol. 31 Issue 5, pp. 64-65

Describes how to move into and through transitions between two buildings in case of emergency like fire. Discussion on the three things get people to move into and through transitions; Pain or anticipated pain in the present that demands doing something different; Reduction of the perceived risk during the transition; Object to move forward; Factors that tend to encourage people to move into and through transitions; Rewards for success; Minimization the perceived risk of trying to change through training.

Institutional governance systems and variations in national competitive advantage: An integrative framework

Griffiths, A. & Zammuto, R.F.

Academy of Management Review Vol. 30 Issue 4, p823-842.

Creating competitive industries has become one of the key tasks of governments. Explaining different adaptation outcomes in industries across nations cannot be fully accounted for simply by an emphasis on firm-level capabilities, market-driven policies, or by state-level policies. This paper proposes an integrative framework that draws on the strategic management and political economy literatures to explain variations in national industrial competitiveness. Differences with respect to institutional characteristics and capabilities, competitive outcomes, conditions of best fit and who bears the cost of industry adaptation are discussed.

Test development and use: New twists on old questions

Cascio, W. F., & Aguinis, H.
Human Resource Management, Vol. 44 Issue 3, pp. 219-235

Over the past several decades there have been some significant advances in psychological science, specifically, in our knowledge about important questions to address with respect to the development and use of assessment tools. This paper focuses on developments in research and guidelines for practice in five selected areas that, if applied, will lead to more informed use of assessment tools. The five areas that we discuss are: validity generalization, statistical significance testing, criterion measures, cutoff scores, and cross-validation.

Legal standards, ethical standards, and responses to social-sexual conduct at work

Pierce, C. A., & Aguinis, H.
Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 26 Issue 6, pp. 727-732

When individuals investigate a sexual harassment claim that stems from a dissolved workplace romance, their responses to the claim are likely influenced by their ethical standards and legal
standards. We propose a person-situation interactionist decision-making process through which investigators’ ethical standards may override legal standards when responding to social-sexual conduct at work.

From business partner to driving business success: The next step in the evolution of HR management

Cascio, Wayne F.
Human Resource Management, Vol. 44 Issue 2, pp. 159-163

In the 1980s, a combination of economic and political factors led to the demand for greater accountability in all functional areas of business, including HR. The massive restructuring of organizations in the 1990s led to the outsourcing of many of HR’s basic transactional functions. In order for HR to add value to an organization, it must have several key competencies. “Influence in leadership is all about understanding the business well enough so that what you recommend adds value to the organization,” says one HR vice president. This article shows how this is done through the example of SYSCO Corporation.

Following a Proven Path to Success

O’Connor, Edward J. and Fiol, C. Marlena
Physician Executive Vol. 31, Issue 3, p. 77–78

This article highlights methods to tackle changes encountered by people in their life. While there is no single right approach to tackling change, following a systematic, sequential process developed by others who have effectively traveled through similar territory increases one’s likelihood of success. People develop a sense of increased urgency, a change team starts to effectively work together, a vision is clarified and communicated and people begin to demonstrate behaviors that show buy-in. Under pressure for rapid results, however, leaders often focus on barriers and action steps before energizers are effectively addressed, leading to little progress, many meetings and fruitless, repetitive discussions of the same topics.

Getting a Grip on Governance

Tyler, J. Larry and Biggs, Errol L.
Frontiers of Health Services Management Vol. 21, Issue 3, p. 37-42

Presents a commentary regarding the need for hospitals’ chief executive officer to be concern about governance. Failure of the community-based model of governance; Thoughts on the recommendations as to what a CEO should do to help the board govern successfully; Difficulty of the role of board member in the context of today’s healthcare and business environment

How is drug testing implemented in this company?" The answer is in the eye of the beholder

Aguinis, H., & Henle, C.A.
Revue Sciences de Gestion (In Press)

We collected surveys from employees in a large petroleum company in the United States. Results indicated that employees with (a) lower scores on belief in chance (a dimension of locus of control), (b) lower scores on authoritarianism, (c) more positive attitudes toward drug testing in general, and (d) knowledge of fewer individuals known fairly well who have failed a drug test
were more likely to report that their organization’s drug testing program includes positive characteristics. We discuss implications of these findings for theory and practice regarding the implementation of drug testing in organizations.