Category Archives: Management

Demand for certified human resources professionals in Internet-based job announcements

Aguinis, H., Michaelis, S. E., & Jones, N. M.
International Journal of Selection and Assessment (In Press)

We tested empirically whether potential employers require and/or prefer human resources (HR)professionals who hold an HR certification. We analyzed each of 1,873 HR job announcements
available over a one-week period on,,, and Results showed that only 9 (i.e., .48%) job announcements stated that there was a requirement and only 70 (i.e., 3.73%) job announcements stated that there was a preference for job applicants with any type of HR certification. In spite of the low overall demand for certified HR professionals, results indicated that the demand is slightly higher for jobs posted on, certain job titles (e.g., HR Director, HR Generalist), HR specialty areas (e.g., employee relations, general HR), industries (e.g., manufacturing), and for jobs requiring more
years of HR job experience. Overall, results suggest that the field of HR needs to do a better job of gathering evidence about validity, utility, and lack of adverse impact regarding the use of
certification in selection and assessment decision making. Once this evidence is collected, employers may perceive HR certification as a more critical signal of a job applicant’s future contributions.

Identification in face-to-face, hybrid, and pure virtual teams: untangling the contradictions.

Fiol, C. Marlena and O’Connor, Edward J.
Organization Science Vol. 16, Issue 1, p. 19-32

Identification is a person’s sense of belonging with a social category. Identification in virtual organizational teams is thought to be especially desirable because it provides the glue that can promote group cohesion despite the relative lack of face-to-face interaction. Though research on virtual teams is exploding, it has not systematically identified the antecedents or moderators of the process by which identification develops, leaving a number of gaps and apparent contradictions. The purpose of this paper is to begin to untangle the contradictions and address some of the gaps by tracing the mechanisms and moderating processes through which identification develops in hybrid and pure virtual settings, and the ways that these processes differ from face-to-face settings.

Effect size and power in assessing moderating effects of categorical variables using multiple regression: A 30-year review

Aguinis, Herman, Beaty, J. C., Boik, R. J., and Pierce, Charles A.
Journal of Applied Psychology Vol. 90, Issue 1, p. 94-107

The authors conducted a 30-year review (1969-1998) of the size of moderating effects of categorical variables as assessed using multiple regression. The median observed effect size of (f2) is only .002, but 72% of the moderator tests reviewed had power of .80 or greater to detect a targeted effect conventionally defined as small. Results suggest the need to minimize the influence of artifacts that produce a downward bias in the observed effect size and put into question the use of conventional definitions of moderating effect sizes. As long as an effect has a meaningful impact, the authors advise researchers to conduct a power analysis and plan future research designs based on smaller and more realistic targeted effect sizes.

Cautionary note on reporting eta-squared values from multifactor ANOVA designs

Pierce, Charles A., Block, R. A., and Aguinis, Herman
Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol. 64 Issue 6, p. 916-924.

We provide a cautionary note on reporting accurate eta-squared values from multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) designs. We reinforce the distinction between classical and partial eta squared as measures of strength of association. We provide examples from articles published in premier psychology journals in which the authors erroneously reported partial eta-squared values as representing classical eta-squared values. Finally, we discuss broader impacts of inaccurately reported eta-squared values for theory development, meta-analytic reviews, and intervention programs.

The Power of Mind

Fiol, C. Marlene and O’connor, Edward J.
Journal of Management Inquiry Vol. 13 Issue 4, p. 342-352.

This essay invites you to entertain the possibility that our current ideas about the human mind and its supposed limitations may themselves be limited. What if organizational realities were more malleable than we believe? What if organizational members could alter their physical surroundings even just occasionally through focused mental attention? We review evidence from numerous fields suggesting that the human mind may be capable of affecting physical reality from a distance and into the past and the future. Although not all studies have provided universal support, the evidence for the impact of focused mental attention is sufficiently compelling and the potential implications sufficiently important that we believe it is time to explicitly examine the organizational implications of the power of the human mind.

Examination of the roles of action-state orientation and goal orientation in the goal-setting and performance process

Diefendorff, James M.

Human Performance Vol. 17, Issue 4, Pages 375-395.

This investigation examined the roles of action-state orientation and goal orientation in predicting task-specific motivation and performance in an academic context. Results showed that action-state orientation predicted performance independent of goal orientation, cognitive ability, self-efficacy and self-set goals. Goal orientation primarily related to self-efficacy beliefs, which predicted goals and performance. Although action-state orientation and goal orientation were correlated, they had independent relationships with task-specific goal-setting and performance variables.

The impact of contextual self-ratings and observer ratings of personality on the personality-performance relationship

Engel-Small, Erika A., and Diefendorff, James M.

Journal of Applied Social Psychology (In Press)

The present study examined two possible ways of increasing the predictive validity of personality measures: using observer (i.e., supervisor and coworker) ratings and work-specific self-ratings of the Big Five personality factors. Results indicated that among general self-ratings of the Big Five personality dimensions, Conscientiousness was the best predictor of in-role performance, and Agreeableness and Emotional Stability were the best predictors of extra-role performance. Observer ratings of personality accounted for incremental variance in job performance (in-role and extra-role) beyond that accounted for by general self-ratings. However, contrary to our expectations, work-specific (i.e., contextual) self-ratings of personality, generally did not account for incremental variance in job performance beyond that accounted for by general self-ratings.

Responding to sexual harassment complaints: Effects of a dissolved workplace romance on decision-making standards

Pierce, Charles A., Broberg, Brandee J., McClure, James R., and Aguinis, Herman
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol. 95, Issue 1, Pages 66-82

We introduce and provide support for an ethical decision-making framework as an explanation for the social-cognitive process through which observers make decisions about a sexual harassment complaint that stems from a prior workplace romance. We conducted two experiments to examine effects of features of a dissolved hierarchical workplace romance and subsequent harassing behavior on raters’ responses to a sexual harassment complaint. In Experiment 1, results based on a sample of 217 employees indicate that their attributions of responsibility for the harassment mediated the link between their knowledge of features of the romance and three recommended personnel actions. In Experiment 2, results based on a sample of 258 members of the Society for Human Resource Management indicate that their degree of recognition of the accused’s social-sexual behavior as immoral mediated the link between their knowledge of features of the romance and harassment and their attributions of responsibility. Raters’ attributions of responsibility, in turn, predicted three recommended personnel actions. We discuss theoretical and practical implications from an ethical decision-making perspective.

Display rules and emotional labor: The moderating role of commitment.

Gosserand, Robin H., & Diefendorff, James M.
Journal of Applied Psychology (in press)

The present study examined whether commitment to emotional display rules is a necessary condition for emotional display rules to impact behavior at work. Results using structural equation modeling revealed that display rule commitment moderated the relationships of emotional display rule perceptions with surface acting, deep acting, and positive affective delivery at work, such that the relationships were strong and positive when commitment to display rules was high, and weak when commitment to display rules was low. These findings suggest that motivation plays a role in the emotional labor process in that individuals must be committed to display rules for display rules to impact behavior.

The dimensionality and antecedents of emotional labor strategies.

Diefendorff, James M., Croyle, Meredith H., & Gosserand, Robin H.
Journal of Vocational Behavior Vol. 66, p. 339-357

This investigation had two purposes. The first was to determine whether the display of naturally-felt emotions is distinct from surface acting and deep acting as a method of displaying organizationally-desired emotions. The second purpose was to examine dispositional and situational antecedents of surface acting, deep acting, and the expression of naturally-felt emotions. Results supported a three-dimensional structure separating deep acting, surface acting, and the expression of naturally-felt emotions. In addition, the dispositional and situational variables exhibited theoretically-consistent and distinct patterns of relationships with the three emotional labor strategies. Overall, the results of this study expand the nomological network of surface acting and deep acting and suggest that the expression of naturally-felt emotions is a distinct strategy for displaying emotions at work and should be included in research on emotional labor.

Protecting Domain Name Assets

Bagby, John W. and Ruhnka, John C.
CPA Journal Vol. 74 Issue 4, p. 64-69

Focuses on the importance of monitoring and protecting Internet domain names. Functions of domain names in e-commerce; General approaches to Internet operations; Strategies for protecting domain name assets.

Measurement equivalence and multisource ratings for non-managerial positions: Recommendations for research and practice.

Diefendorff, James M., Silverman, Stanley B., & Greguras, Gary J.
Journal of Business and Psychology Vol. 19, p. 399-425.

The present investigation applies a comprehensive sequence of confirmatory factor analysis tests (Vandenberg & Lance, 2000) to the examination of the measurement equivalence of self, peer, and supervisor ratings of non-managerial targets across several performance dimensions. Results indicate a high degree of measurement equivalence across rater sources and performance dimensions. The paper illustrates how this procedure can identify very specific areas of nonequivalence and how the complexity of a multisource feedback system may be represented using such procedures. Implications of these results and recommendations for both research and practice are offered.

CEO succession planning: An emerging challenge for boards of directors

Biggs, Errol L.
Academy of Management Executive Vol. 18 Issue 1, p. 105-107

The article discusses the importance of chief executive officer (CEO) succession planning for corporate success. In a recent survey of public-corporation CEOs conducted by the National Association of Corporate Directors, CEO succession had risen to the second most important issue facing boards of directors. As in the past, one way to avoid the hassle of searching for a new CEO is to have the successor often be an internal candidate already identified and groomed to take over when the current CEO steps aside. The board’s role in succession planning comprises several tasks. Although the CEO is the central player in the process, the board should understand this is a joint duty and not one delegated solely to the CEO. Many organizations have found it is beneficial to go outside the organization to look for a new CEO. To minimize the disruption created when a CEO departs unexpectedly, an internal individual can be designated as the acting CEO. No two succession scenarios are identical and therefore a variety of possible conditions may confront the board as it faces the challenge. A primary internal candidate may thus need to be passed over as CEO-designate as part of a bargaining position or in deference to perceived equity with the other entity.